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Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies Diamine Oxidase (DAO): A Key to Understanding Histamine Intolerance

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The Pioneering Solution for Histamine Intolerance Diagnosis

Histamine intolerance (HIT) is a widespread but often undiagnosed condition that can significantly impair a person’s quality of life. The key player in this issue is an enzyme known as diamine oxidase (DAO).

It’s your internal histamine breakdown mechanism, and when its levels or activity are low, symptoms of HIT can occur. Recognizing the importance of reliable diagnostics in HIT, Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies has developed a pioneering tool for HIT diagnosis—the DAO-REA diagnostic kit.

The Crucial Function of Diamine Oxidase in Histamine Metabolism and Intolerance

Histamine, a naturally occurring compound or biogenic amine, is central to a range of physiological processes within the body.

However, an imbalance, specifically an excess of histamine, can instigate a series of adverse reactions collectively known as histamine intolerance.

The enzyme Diamine Oxidase (DAO) plays a pivotal role in maintaining this delicate balance, facilitating the breakdown of dietary histamine to maintain homeostasis.

Diamine Oxidase: The Gatekeeper of Histamine Homeostasis

DAO, produced by the epithelial cells lining the intestinal villi, is fundamental in managing histamine levels.

Acting as the body’s primary defense against dietary histamine, DAO executes a process known as oxidative deamination, converting histamine into metabolites which are then expelled from the body.

Here’s an encapsulated understanding of DAO’s role:

  • DAO synthesis: The enzyme originates from the epithelial cells lining the intestinal villi.
  • DAO function: It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine, essentially breaking it down.
  • Metabolite excretion: The resulting metabolites are expelled from the body, thereby regulating histamine levels.

The Onset of Histamine Intolerance

Histamine intolerance arises when the efficient breakdown of histamine, principally mediated by DAO, is disrupted. This leads to an excess of histamine, inciting a range of discomforting symptoms.

Several factors can cause this DAO-histamine imbalance:

  • Genetic factors: Variations in genetic makeup can influence the functionality or quantity of DAO, hampering its ability to degrade histamine effectively.
  • Histamine-rich foods: Excessive consumption of foods high in histamine can overwhelm the DAO capacity, leading to an accumulation of histamine.
  • Gastrointestinal disorders: Conditions that impair the intestinal mucosa, where DAO is chiefly located, can inhibit DAO activity, causing a reduction in histamine breakdown.

Symptoms and Management of Histamine Intolerance

doctor and patient consult regarding histamine intolerance

Histamine intolerance can manifest a broad spectrum of symptoms due to the diverse roles of histamine in the body.

These symptoms can range from skin rashes and headaches to gastrointestinal discomforts such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, as well as respiratory and neurological issues.

While the term “intolerance” may suggest an allergic reaction, histamine intolerance is, in fact, an indication that the body lacks the sufficient capability to process or degrade histamine.

Here are some common symptoms:

  • Dermatological: Rashes, hives, and skin redness
  • Digestive: Bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
  • Respiratory: Nasal congestion, wheezing, and difficulty breathing
  • Neurological: Headaches, dizziness, and fatigue

Efficient management of histamine intolerance involves identifying and reducing the intake of histamine-rich foods:

  1. Fermented Foods: These include sauerkraut, yogurt, and kombucha which contain high histamine levels due to fermentation.
  2. Cured Meats: Foods like bacon, salami, and pepperoni often contain significant histamine levels.
  3. Vinegar-Based Foods: Items such as pickles, mayonnaise, and olives, preserved using vinegar, can be high in histamine.
  4. Aged Cheeses: Cheddar, gouda, and Swiss are examples of aged cheeses that can have elevated histamine levels due to the aging process.
  5. Alcoholic Beverages: Drinks like wine and beer can contribute to histamine levels.

Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies GmbH: Innovations in Histamine Intolerance Diagnosis and Management

Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies GmbH, a significant player in health product manufacturing, provides an array of diagnostic kits, nutritional supplements, and histamine intolerance equipment.

Among their notable offerings is the innovative diagnostic kit known as DAO-REA, developed explicitly for the detection of low DAO levels, which can cause an excess of histamine in circulation leading to histamine intolerance symptoms.

Breakthrough Diagnostic Tool: DAO-REA

Sciotec’s DAO-REA (Radio Extraction Assay) marks a milestone in histamine intolerance diagnostics. This is the first commercially available kit for detecting low DAO levels that may contribute to histamine intolerance symptoms.

The kit’s development, in collaboration with Allergy Center Floridsdorf under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Jarisch, further cements Sciotec’s commitment to innovative health solutions.

DAO-REA utilizes a 3H-marked substrate for the assay, with the level of radioactive substances staying below the EU limit. The kit enables 100 determinations, offering a comprehensive tool for medical professionals to detect histamine intolerance.

Understanding the Mechanism: DAO and Histamine Intolerance

The DAO-REA diagnostic kit works by measuring the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma and blood. DAO is the enzyme responsible for breaking down histamine in the body, and its deficiency can cause histamine intolerance.

However, it is important to note that measuring DAO activity in the blood may not necessarily be a completely reliable indicator. Other diagnostic techniques exist to identify histamine intolerance, such as a simple blood test or a colorimetric method to determine DAO enzymatic activity.

Complementary Solution: DAOSiN Nutritional Supplement

In addition to its diagnostic contributions, Sciotec also offers a nutritional supplement named DAOSiN, aimed at supporting histamine decomposition in the intestine. This supplement, containing the DAO enzyme, aids in managing the symptoms of histamine intolerance, demonstrating Sciotec’s comprehensive approach to this health issue.

Sciotec’s Impact and Future Endeavors

Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies GmbH has carved out a significant role in diagnosing and managing histamine intolerance. The development of tools like the DAO-REA diagnostic kit and the DAOSiN supplement underlines their innovative and integrative approach. The future promises exciting developments from Sciotec, as they continue to research and develop cutting-edge health solutions.

Managing Histamine Intolerance

Understanding one’s DAO levels is just the first step in managing histamine intolerance. Once diagnosed, patients would need to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a comprehensive management plan.

This plan would typically include:

  1. Dietary Modifications: This is usually the first-line treatment for histamine intolerance. Individuals may need to restrict foods high in histamine and consume more fresh, unprocessed foods.
  2. Medication and Supplements: In some cases, doctors might prescribe medications that boost the body’s DAO levels or inhibit the release of histamine. Over-the-counter DAO supplements are also available.
  3. Lifestyle changes: Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and stress management can also help manage histamine intolerance.
  4. Regular Monitoring: Periodic DAO tests may be recommended to monitor the individual’s DAO levels and adjust the treatment plan accordingly.


What role does diamine oxidase (DAO) play in histamine intolerance?

Diamine oxidase, produced by the epithelial cells lining the intestinal villi, is central in managing histamine levels in the body. It facilitates oxidative deamination, converting histamine into metabolites which are then expelled from the body.

This process is crucial in maintaining histamine homeostasis. When the activity of diamine oxidase is low or its levels are deficient, histamine can’t be broken down effectively, leading to an excess of histamine and triggering symptoms of histamine intolerance.

How does DAO-REA (Radio Extraction Assay) aid in the diagnosis of histamine intolerance?

DAO-REA (Radio Extraction Assay), is a pioneering tool developed by Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. The kit measures the activity of diamine oxidase in plasma and blood using a 3H-marked substrate for the assay, thereby detecting potential histamine intolerance in patients.

What are the symptoms of histamine intolerance and how is it managed?

Histamine intolerance can manifest a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from dermatological issues like rashes and hives, digestive problems such as bloating and abdominal pain, respiratory symptoms like nasal congestion and wheezing, to neurological symptoms including headaches and fatigue.

The severity of symptoms can be assessed using a symptom severity score. Management typically involves dietary modifications including low-histamine diets, medications that boost DAO levels or inhibit histamine release, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring of DAO levels.

What factors can disrupt the efficient breakdown of histamine?

Several factors can influence the breakdown of histamine and thus cause histamine intolerance.

Genetic factors can influence the functionality or quantity of DAO, impairing its ability to degrade histamine effectively. Excessive consumption of histamine-rich foods can overwhelm the DAO capacity, leading to an accumulation of histamine.

Lastly, gastrointestinal disorders that impair the intestinal mucosa, where DAO is chiefly located, can inhibit DAO activity, causing a reduction in histamine breakdown.

How do Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies contribute to managing histamine intolerance?

In addition to developing the DAO-REA diagnostic kit, Sciotec also offers the DAOSiN nutritional supplement. This supplement contains the DAO enzyme and is designed to support histamine decomposition in the intestine.

By doing so, it helps manage the symptoms of histamine intolerance. The company is committed to further research and development of innovative health solutions to address histamine intolerance and other health issues.


Histamine intolerance (HIT) is a common but often underdiagnosed condition that results from a deficiency in the diamine oxidase (DAO) enzyme, leading to an excess of histamine in the body. Symptoms of HIT can range from skin rashes and digestive discomforts to respiratory and neurological issues.

Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies GmbH, a key player in the health product manufacturing industry, has developed an innovative diagnostic tool—DAO-REA—specifically for detecting histamine intolerance. This groundbreaking development marks a significant advancement in HIT diagnosis, promising improved patient outcomes.

Moreover, Sciotec’s DAOSiN supplement underscores its comprehensive approach to managing HIT. Despite these advancements, the management of HIT requires a holistic approach, including dietary modifications, medications, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring.

As such, patients should work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a personalized management plan. With such pioneering solutions, the future of HIT diagnosis and management looks promising.

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